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A cricket ball of mass one 160 grams has a constant velocity of 10 meters per second.
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A golf ball of mass 40 grams has the same velocity as the cricket ball.
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What velocity change must a cricket ball undergo to have the same momentum as the golf ball?
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Okay, so letโs begin by underlining the important information given to us in the question.
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Now we know weโve got two balls.
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The first one is a cricket ball of mass 160 grams.
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And it has a constant velocity of 10 meters per second.
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The second is a golf ball with a mass of 40 grams.
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And it has the same velocity.
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What we need to do is find out the velocity change that the cricket ball must undergo to have the same momentum as the golf ball.
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So if weโre to draw a diagram, in this case really badly, hereโs our cricket ball with the mass ๐ sub c of 160 grams and itโs travelling at a velocity ๐ sub c at 10 meters per second.
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We can also draw in our golf ball which has a mass ๐ sub g of 40 grams and a velocity ๐ sub g of 10 meters per second, same as the cricket ball.
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Now this question is quite intricate.
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What it wants us to do is to find the change in velocity that the cricket ball must go through in order to have the same momentum as the golf ball.
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So first of all, why donโt we find out what the momentum of the cricket ball and the momentum of the golf ball actually is.
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Using the definition that momentum is equal to the mass multiplied by the velocity, we can say that the momentum of the cricket ball now, capital ๐ sub c, is equal to lowercase ๐ sub c, which is the mass, multiplied by ๐ sub c, which is the velocity.
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And we can substitute in the values of 160 grams and 10 meters per second.
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This ends up giving us a momentum for the cricket ball of 1600 gram meters per second.
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By the way, you may have noticed that weโve kept using grams rather than kilograms which is the standard unit of mass.
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But in this case, it doesnโt matter.
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As long as we also use grams for the golf ball, we can find the momentum in gram meters per second and compare the two rather than converting the mass to kilograms.
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So now we know the initial momentum of the cricket ball.
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Which means we can find the momentum of the golf ball.
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Once again, the momentum โ this time of the golf ball, capital ๐ sub g โ is equal to the mass of the golf ball, lower case ๐ sub g, multiplied by the velocity, ๐ sub g.
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Going through the motions once again, we see that the momentum of the golf ball, capital ๐ sub g, happens to be 400 gram meters per second.
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Now the question wants us to find the velocity change that the cricket ball must go through to have the same momentum as the golf ball.
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So letโs ignore the velocity change bit for now.
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And letโs just discuss the bit which talks about the same momentum.
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Weโve seen that the momentum of the golf ball is 400 gram meters per second.
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And the question wants the cricket ball to have the same momentum of 400 gram meters per second.
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That is, the question wants the new cricket ball momentum, capital ๐ sub c comma new, to be 400 gram meters per second.
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So the momentum of the cricket ball started out at 1600 gram meters per second.
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And it has to be reduced to 400 gram meters per second.
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Now there are two ways of doing this.
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In order to reduce momentum, you could either lower the value of the mass, that is basically chop the cricket ball into pieces, or you could make the cricket ball lose some speed.
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And itโs the second scenario thatโs important in this question because, obviously, the question doesnโt talk about slicing up the cricket ball.
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But what it does talk about is changing velocity.
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Which means that we can say that the new momentum, capital ๐ sub c comma new, is equal to ๐ sub c, which is the same mass of the cricket ball cause the mass doesnโt change, multiplied by a new velocity, ๐ sub c comma new.
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And we could find this new velocity, ๐ sub c comma new, by dividing both sides of the equation by the mass of the cricket ball, lowercase ๐ sub c.
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And that happens to be 400 gram meters per second, the new momentum of the cricket ball, divided by 160 grams, which is still the mass of the cricket ball.
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Evaluating that fraction tells us that the new velocity, ๐ sub c comma new, is 2.5 meters per second.
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But is that our final answer?
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No, it is not.
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We need to read the question carefully one more time.
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What weโve been told to find is the velocity change that the cricket ball must go through in order to have this new momentum.
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So we need to work out this velocity change.
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We donโt just want the final velocity.
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We want the velocity change.
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What is a velocity change?
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We need to work out a quantity ฮ๐.
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Now ฮ is used to represent a change.
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And we want the velocity change.
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And this velocity change is given by the difference between the final velocity of the cricket ball and the initial velocity of the cricket ball.
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In other words, itโs given by ๐ sub c comma new minus ๐ sub c.
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Because initially, it was travelling at ๐ sub c.
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Thatโs 10 meters per second.
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And now itโs travelling at ๐ sub c comma new.
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Thatโs two and a half meters per second.
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So we need to work out what the difference between these two is, to work out what the change in velocity is.
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So plugging in these values, we get two and a half meters per second minus 10 meters per second.
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And so, our final answer is that the change in velocity of the cricket ball is minus 7.5 meters per second.
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Or, in other words, the cricket ball loses 7.5 meters per second of speed so that it can have the same momentum as the golf ball.
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This makes some physical sense.
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Since the cricket ball is much heavier than the golf ball, in order to have the same momentum, it must be travelling a lot slower.
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It cannot be travelling at the same speed as the golf ball.